What Is Hardware? – What Is Computer Hardware?


Do you know what the hardware is ? If you have come looking for these questions then you are at the right place. 

You must know that there are mainly two parts in a computer, one is software and the other is hardware. 

Software which is also called Computer Program. The software that you use everyday in your mobile and computer. 

Software’s EX- VLC, Chrome, Internet Explorer, MS-WORD, MS-POWERPOINT, Photoshop, pdf reader and Operating System (Android, Windows, MAC, UNIX).

Have you ever thought, all these “Software is nothing without Hardware”. Think once how you will write in MS-WORD without keyboard. Can’t even edit in Photoshop without a mouse. 

If you do not store the pdf book somewhere in the hard disk, then how will you read it from Adobe Reader. 

So maybe you understand my point a little bit. Keyboard , Mouse , Hard Disk, Monitor, Motherboard , CPU , UPS, Speaker all these are one hardware.

Without hardware, we can never even think about the image of a computer. Let us now know in detail what is called computer hardware .

What is Hardware?

Hardware is that part of the computer which we can see and touch. If we describe it properly, then it is the physical component of the computer, and this component consists of circuit boards, ICs, and other electronics .

This is a perfect example, what you are reading my article on the screen right now, it can be any of the screen Computer, Tablet, Mobile. All the Input, Output, Processing and Storage devices in a computer are all one HW.

Without any hardware, your computer does not exist, and you cannot use any software without it. If SW is the soul of the computer then your body is the hardware of the computer. But in reality, in order to get any work done from the hardware, we use software .

If you want to listen to the song on the computer, then it is not that you will speak to the computer and the song will be played. 

For this, when you play the song in Windows Media Player or VLC (both these are software), then only that song will be played on that speaker. Meaning hw is controlled through sw.

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Types of Hardware?

You must have seen two types of systems 1. Laptop 2. Desktop. All the physical components of the laptop remain connected. 

But the components of the desktop come differently. But hw are almost same in both. Let us know about the types and examples of these hardware.

1. Keyboard

This is an input device. Without this hardware, you cannot even enter some data in the computer. With the help of this, we can do all the writing tasks of the computer. What you are reading now is also written with this keyboard. You can also see and touch this electronics devices. It is one of the most used devices. There are also other Hw components inside it. This device is installed in the USB port.

2. Mouse

It is also known as pointing device and cursor moving device. A mouse can have 2 or 3 buttons. Such as the right, left, and middle buttons (Left key, Right key, Middle key Roller). All these are HW one. The mouse is placed on the flat surface or on the mouse pad. It is used to control the cursor.

3. Scanner

This is the external HW of a computer. Using a scanner, written papers and photographs can be converted into digital images and stored in memory. Documents can also be scanned and stored in the computer through the scanner. This is called Extenal H/W.

4. Monitor

A computer monitor is an electronic device that is used to show output in some computers. It looks exactly like a TV. A big and good display resolution shows us a good picture. This hardware is of small size in LAPTOP and slightly larger in Desktop.

CRT Monitor: – These are heavy and large and use a lot of deskspace and electricity. This is the oldest used technology. It is based on cathode ray tube technology which was made for television. But these monitors do not work nowadays.

LCD Monitor: – There is a type of flat panel display. This is a newer technology than CRT. These monitors use less desk space. It is of less weight. These monitors use less electricity. For a long time, these monitors are being used on laptops and notebook computers, they also work as touchscreens on tablet computers, mobile phones.

5. Speaker

This is also External Hardware. Using this we can hear sound. It gives output in the form of sound. Nowadays it remains inbuilt in the system.

6. Printer

External HW. Printer is an output device that prints the information received from the computer on paper, this copy of the output on the paper is called hard copy. That’s why the need was felt that the information can be stored in the printer itself, so the printer also has a memory from where it prints the results slowly.

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7. Motherboard

This hw is the main part of the computer. You need to open Computer to see it. This is a board called PCB (Printed Circuit Board). This board holds the different components of the computer. And all those components are CPU, RAM , Hard Disk, smps port, Graphics card .

8. CPU (Microprocessor)

The full name of CPU is Central Processing Unit. It is not a hardware itself, there are many small and big hardware inside it. It is also called the brain of the computer. It controls the computer. We do what our mind tells us to do. Mainly its 3 components are ALU, CU and MU. ALU which is called Arithmatic and Logical Unit. CU Control Unit and MU Memory Unit. ALU arithmetic calculations like Addition, Subtraction, Multiplication and Division. LU performs comparison operation. e.g. Less than, greater than, equal to and Not equal to. MU has primary and secondary memory.

9. RAM

The full name of RAM is Random Access Memory. It is also called Direct Access Memory, this memory is mostly of less size than Secondary Memory in Computer. Like in your mobile it is up to 1GB, 2GB, 3GB, 4GB. This is an electromagnetic disk. It is in hw Rectangle shape.

10. Expansion cards

Graphics Cards – It looks like HW card, it is inserted in MOTHERBOARD. Graphics card is used to do Image Rendering / Produce on the monitor. Converts the data in such a way and generates signals which is easily understood by your monitor.

The better the graphics card, the better the image is produced. It is necessary to have a Graphics Card for Gamer’s and Video Editor dear people. It is installed in the motherboard. Its shape is like a chip.

Sound card – Its other name is audio output device, sound board, or audio card. Sound card is an expansion card and IC. Helps to remove sound. Which we can hear through speakers and headphones.

11. SMPS

The full name of SMPS hardware is Switch Mode Power Supply. This is an electronic circuit. If you buy separately for Desktop, then you will get some square shape box, the same is SMPS. This device gives power to different parts of the computer such as RAM, motherboard, gives power supply to the fan. By the way, electricity goes from the motherboard to different parts.

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12. Hard Disk Drive (HDD)

HDD This is a data storage hardware device. Lives inside the computer or laptop. How many files or data or computer programs are stored inside it. The OS is also stored in this HDD. This memory is also known as C drive. After partition, C, D, E drives are also created. Hard drives retrieve data from hard disks, fixed drives, fixed disks, and fixed disOptical drives and store the data in optical discs such as CDs, DVDs, and BDs (Blue-ray discs). Their storage capacity is very high.


DVD Drive is installed in the CPU of every Desktop and Laptop. Which are also called optical drives. Some other names of DVD drive are Disc Drive, Odd, CD Drive, DVD Drive. They are used to store digital data. It is used to play the DATA which is present in DVD, CD in computer.

Difference Between Hardware And Software

  1. Hardware and Software are dependent on each other in Apsa. Both (sw and hw) work together to give accurate output.
  2. Without HW it is impossible to use sw without support and thus it is impossible to use sw without Hw.
  3. Using hw without set of program is nil
  4. To do any work in the computer, it is very necessary to first load the software into the hardware.
  5. Hardware needs to be purchased only once.
  6. It costs a lot to build and maintain the software.
  7. To perform different types of jobs from the same hw, many different software are installed. (One monitor can do many tasks like Movie, Word, Paint, editing on H/W but we need to install different S/W)
  8. sw acts as an interface between h/w and the user.

So there was only one principle to say that both are nothing without each other. As much as hw is needed in a computer, S/W is also needed.

Future Of Hardware

When the first computer was made, all its components were in different rooms and they were connected through cables. After this, the size of the computers that were made was further reduced, due to which the size of HW also became smaller. With the help of VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) and LSI (Large Scale Integration) technology, these hardwares were further reduced. Now due to technology, the size of the computer has become equal to a clock. With the help of ULSI, Nano technology, microprocessor, now even the smallest size HWs are being made.

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